Date: Fri, 15 May 1998 16:42:37 -0600
From: C Hammett x-x-x-x-x-xcarhammett@mindspring.com"><carhammett@mindspring.com>
To: COMBS-L@rootsweb.com
Message-Id: <>
Subject: [COMBS-L] London Inns of Court
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Background: In the course of records collections of our Archdale, Combs and
Associated Families, Denise and Joe have been collecting and posting
English records referencing Combs and Associated families who were members
of the London Inns of Court. I thought the following might be helpful
and/or of interest to all:

According to "A Topographical Dictionary of England, Inns of Court and
Courts of Judicature," Samuel Lewis, S. Lewis and Company, London, 1831,
Vol. 3, pp. 141-2, the Inns were "originally like colleges in a university,
but confined to the study of the law. Though their origin cannot be exactly
ascertained, they may be presumed to have owed their rise to the
establishment of the courts of justice at Westminster; by Henry III, which,
collecting in their neighhourhood the whole body of common lawyers, or
practitioners, in those courts, they began to form themselves into a
society (supposed at Thaives Inn, Holborn,) in a collegiate manner; hence
their place of residence was denominated an Inn (Hostel), or House of
Court… the king, in 1244, forbade the teaching of law in schools set up in
the city, as had been accustomed, and restricted its study to these inns.
Their increase, as well as division into Inns of Court and Inns of
Chancery, is not recognized till the reign of Edward III, when their
students are called apprentices of the law (from the Fr. Apprendre [to
learn]), and the Inns of Court became appropriated solely to the study of
the common law, as were the latter to such clerks as studied the forming of
writs and other process in chancery. Till late in the seventeenth century,
the students of the various inns were exercised before the principals in
sharn pleadings, called mootings, and many antiquated customs were
retained, as well as occasionally splendid ceremonies exhibited.

"At present [1830] the Inns have become mere residences, not for lawyers
only, but any persons who choose to hire chambers in them; and the
law-student, before being called to the bar, is now only obliged to be
entered of one of these places, and dine in the common hall a certain
number of terms; after which, should his admission not be objected to by
the members, an occurrence that rarely happens, he is legally qualified to
plead and conduct causes. The Inns of Court are not incorporated,
consequently the masters, principals, benchers, &c., by whom they are
governed, can make no by-laws, nor possess estates, &c.; yet they have
certain orders which, by consent and prescription, have obtained the force
of laws: the societies are entirely supported by sums paid for admissions
and for chambers; and from the benchers, or seniors, in whom the government
is vested, a treasurer is usually chosen to manage these funds; the other
members may be divided into outer barristers, inner barristers, and students.

"The principal Inns of Court are four:-The Inner Temple, Middle Temple,
Lincoln's Inn, and Gray's Inn. The Inns of Chancery are seven, viz.,
Clifford's Inn, Lyon's Inn, Clement's Inn, and New Inn, belonging to the
two Temples; Furnival's Inn, belonging to Lincoln's Inn; and Staples Inn,
and Bernard's Inn, belonging to Gray's Inn. Thavies Inn, Scroop's Inn,
Chester Inn, or Strand Inn, as well as Johnson's Inn, and some others in
the city, have long been disused. Of the two Serjeant's Inns, in
Fleet-street and Chancery-lane, the latter only is appropriated as chambers
for the Serjeants at law, who removed thither from Symond's Inn, which is
falling to decay, and merely tenanted as chambers by any one who chooses to
rent them. Serjeant's Inn, Fleet-street, consists now of private residences.

1. The Temple is so called from its original inhabitants, the Knights
Templars, who, on quitting their old house in Southampton-buildings,
Holborn, in the reign of Henry II., built a house in Fleet-street, thence
called the New Temple, which occupied all the ground from White Friars to
Essex-street. On their suppression by Edward II., the Temple, after two or
three intermediate grants from the Crown, was, by Edward III., given to the
monastery of St. John of Jerusalem, the prior and convent of which
afterwards demised it to the lawyers, supposed to have emigrated here from
Thavies Inn, at a yearly rent of £10, a sum for which they still enjoy from
the Crown the whole of this splendid property. The Temple is at present
divided between the two societies-the Inner and Middle Templers, each
consisting of benchers, barristers, and students, the government being
vested in the benchers. In term-time the members dine in the hall of the
society, which is called keeping commons; to dine a fortnight in each term,
is deemed keeping the term, and twelve of those terms qualify a student,
after being called to the bar, to plead and manage causes in the courts:
each society has also a treasurer, sub-treasurer, steward, chief butler,
three under-butlers, upper and under cook, and various other officers and
servants. The Temple Church is the chief architectural attraction belonging
to these societies, though each has also a fine large hall, and an
extensive library, as well as beautiful gardens: the garden of the Inner
Temple affords a remarkably fine summer promenade. The houses are generally
large plain brick edifices, divided into sets of chambers, most of which
are spacious apartments.

2. Lincoln's Inn occupies, with its gardens and squares, a very extensive
plot of ground on the western side of Chancery-lane. It has a fine ancient
brick gateway opening from Chancery-lane, built by Sir Thomas LOVEL in the
reign of Henry VII.; a hall erected by the same person, wherein the Lord
Chancellor holds his sittings; and a chapel built by Inigo JONES, in the
English style of architecture. The buildings occupy four large squares,
exclusively of the avenues to them, &c.; and the garden affords a most
agreeable promenade.

3. Gray's Inn is chiefly remarkable for its large and beautiful garden. The
buildings consist principally of two quadrangles, separated by a hall and
chapel, and two handsome ranges of building recently erected, called
Verulam and Raymond buildings: the chambers and regulations of both these
last inns are similar to those of the Temple. Most of the other inns
consist of double courts, surrounded by large brick buildings divided into
chambers: all of them have halls, and several have good libraries and
gardens. The finest, in point of architecture, is Furnival's Inn, situated
in Holborn, which has been lately rebuilt in an excellent style, and forms
a large and beautiful pile of buildings.

4. The Temple, Inner and Middle, are organizations with origins in the 12th
century, and still in existence today. It is believed that from the
beginning, two societies existed in the Temple with one, the "Inner Inn"
occupying the hall next to the cloisters, and the other, the "middle inn,"
using the unconsecrated buildings between the inner portion and the Outer
Temple. Although the Temples produced barristers and solicitors, the
majority of students were country gentlemen [whose attendance was not for
the purpose of becoming learning the law, but more a form of continuing

According to "The Inner Temple, A Brief Historical Description,* by J. H.
Baker, Q. C., LL.D., F.B.A, an Honorary Master of the Bench, the Middle
Temple was dominated by west countrymen, whereas the Inner Temple drew more
from the north, the midlands and London. Baker adds that "the sixteenth
century was an age of expansion for the common law and its practitioners,
and all the inns were substantially enlarged and beautified during the
Tudor period… Some of the development may be traced through the Inn's
records, since the minutes of parliament (the governing body of benchers)
exist from 1505; but most building projects were carried out with private
money, the investors retaining a freehold interest in the chambers. Very
few of these Tudor buildings survived into the nineteenth century, though
the name Hare Court still commemorates a rebuilding scheme financed by
Nicholas HARE in 1567. In HARE'S time there were 100 sets of chambers in
the Inn, making it the second largest (after Gray's Inn); in 1574 it is
recorded that only 15 benchers and 23 barristers lived in, well outnumbered
by the 151 resident students. Celebrated alumni from this period included
Sir Thomas AUDLEY (d. 1544), the Inn's first lord chancellor, two
subsequent holders of the great seal (Sir Thomas Bromley and Sir
Christopher HATTON), and, above all, Sir Edward COKE (d. 1634). COKE is
still remembered for his Reports and Institutes, which included a
Commentary on LITTLETON; but perhaps the greatest achievement of his stormy
judicial career was the foundation of English administrative law… The
expansion of membership continued throughout that period: over 1,700
students were admitted to the Inn between 1600 and 1640. In 1642, however,
the news of Edgehill** sent bench and bar rushing home. The Inns were all
but closed for four years, and the legal university suffered a mortal
collapse. Readings were discontinued, and their revival after the
interregnum was short-lived. The first Restoration reading [was] by Sir
Heneage FINCH in 1661… King Charles II attended the reader's feast in
person, and the Duke of York (later King James II) became the first royal
bencher. But readers in general found it was easier to pay the fine for
default than to prepare lectures and pay for feasts, while the Inn
doubtless concluded that monetary compensation was more useful than
specific performance… Distinguished alumni included John HAMPDEN (d. 1643),
opponent of ship-money, John SELDEN (d. 1654), legal historian and defender
of English liberties, Henry ROLLE (d. 1656) and Sir John VAUGHAN (d. 1674),
two very learned chief justices, Lord NOTTINGHAM (d. 1682), the 'father of
modern equity', and the notorious 'Judge JEFFREYS' (later Lord Chancellor
JEFFREYS, d. 1689) of the Bloody Assizes…"

* As posted by Denise yesterday, Baker's History is available at:

**The reference is to the Battle of Edgehill which took place on 23 Oct
1642 at Edgehill, Warwickshire between Parliamentarians and Royalists
(Civil War)

SIDE NOTE: The Civil War resulted in numerous removals from England to the
Colonies. In my spare time <g>, I've been working on an historical
"time-line" in regard to wars, colonisations (patents), religious statutes
(and enforcement thereof), etc. that might effect the movements of both
English and French (particularly Huguenot) Combs (all sp.) and Associated
Families as well as movements between Colonies.

Other examples would include: the exiled Royalists to the Colonies, exiled
Puritans to Holland (and from Holland back to England and/or the Colonies),
Puritans and Quakers from Virginia Colony to Maryland, Catholics to
Maryland, Quakers to Pennsylvania, etc. Knowing when our ancestors moved
from one location to another can help us learn why, and conversely, knowing
their politics, religion, social stature in one location at one time can
offer clues as to their origins.

Hope this helps...


Carole Hammett,
Combs RootsWeb


Date: Fri, 15 May 1998 16:43:54 -0600
From: C Hammett x-x-x-x-x-xcarhammett@mindspring.com"><carhammett@mindspring.com>
To: COMBS-L@rootsweb.com
Message-Id: <>
Subject: [COMBS-L] St. Mary Aldermanbury, London, EN
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Hi, Denise. When you posted the records from St. Mary The Virgin,
Aldermanbury, London, your source was:

"The Registers of St. Mary the Virgin Aldermanbury London" ed. W. Bruce
Bannerman, F.S.A. Part 1. London. 1931

The entries, as you posted them, included the following (selected examples):

p.61 "Burials 1594"
Feb 2 Margaret COMBE

p.69 "Baptisms" 1599
Feb. 11 Jhon s. of Mr. Jhon COMBE, merchant

CH: It is not clear whether these dates were Old Style or New Style (which
is going to be important in re several later records), and I wonder if
either the introduction to the source or the format of record entries so

Using the Old Style Calendar, in effect at the time, the year 1599, for
example, would begin on Mar 25 and end on Mar 24, with March being the
first month of the year. In this source, did they begin with the month of
Mar when listing the 1599 baptisms or with the month of January? (Even w/o
intro, that should tell us which was the actual Old Style year of birth).

PS If you addressed this in earlier posting, and I missed it, apologies in
advance. ()>:


Carole Hammett,
Combs RootsWeb


Date: Fri, 15 May 1998 19:58:08 -0500
From: William Combs x-x-x-x-x-xbcombs@tctc.com"><bcombs@tctc.com>
To: COMBS-L@rootsweb.com
Message-ID: <01BD803D.A5ABC4E0.bcombs@tctc.com>
Subject: RE: [COMBS-L] Jane Brown/John Combs,Jr
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I have John COmbs married to Jane Brown with everythingelse the same. He
was born in NJ Nov 20, 1798 and died in Butler county Ohio. Their sons were
William B. COmbs b 1822, died 1878 in Mulberry, IN. William is buried in
the Dayton, IN cemetery. A nice granite marker on the hill. JAMES B. Combs
and NATHAN Combs. This is my direct line with John being my
ggggrandfather. Source History of Clinton County IN

Found a Jane Brown b Oct 1794 ,m. 30 Dec 1819 in Butler Co, Ohio to James
Combs , Jr. , no death date or other info given. Can someone fill me in
this James Combs Jr.?

Jane, dtr of James Brown b 26 Sept 1760 in Antrim Ireland and who died 30
April 1838 Clinton ,Indiana and unidentified wife, along with several
was found in a Family Group Sheet of Family Tree Maker. Submitter was from
Mexico. work done Oct 17, 1989.

Thanks for any help you can give me re: this Combs.

Virginia Winn Parker


Date: Fri, 15 May 1998 22:00:23 -0400
From: "Fred and Kris" x-x-x-x-x-xfredkris@email.msn.com"><fredkris@email.msn.com>
To: COMBS-L@rootsweb.com
Message-ID: <00a001bd806e$64e79b60$7bc2fdd0@default>
Subject: [COMBS-L] combs tolson

Where can i find the info on the marriage of Seth Combs to George H. TOlson?
I am descended from one of their sons. Thanks. Kris


Date: Fri, 15 May 1998 22:05:44 -0700
From: Birdie L McNutt x-x-x-x-x-xbirdiemc@juno.com "><birdiemc@juno.com >
To: COMBS-L@rootsweb.com
Message-ID: <19980515.220546.3590.6.birdiemc@juno.com>
Subject: [COMBS-L] Re: Notes

Hi Carole,

I believe I posted the Magruder family information back in Dec 98 from
Colonial Families of the United States of America. Vol. I and Vol II. I
have in my personal library the complete set of these books. If you need
a look up. or
If anyone wants to check out this set of books it is available at:

Ancestry Daily News
"A Daily Dose of Genealogy"

May 15, 1998

In this issue:
- Database of the Day: Colonial Families of the United States of
America, Vol. 1
- Today's New Maps
- Product of the Day at the Online Store: The Internet Genealogy
- "Irish Ancestors" Launched by Irish Times on the Web

Birdie (Totty) McNutt ( ( : )


<< Also, I think(?) this is the first I've heard of Barbara COMBS
having been a d/o Enoch and Barbary COMBS, Sr. Do you (or does anyone)
a source for either Barbara's ancestry or maiden name? >>



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Date: Sat, 16 May 1998 01:59:35 EDT
From: JKK358 x-x-x-x-x-xJKK358@aol.com"><JKK358@aol.com>
To: COMBS-L@rootsweb.com
Message-ID: <ea2247ec.355d2b48@aol.com>
Subject: [COMBS-L] Re: COMBS-D Digest V98 #518
Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
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In a message dated 5/14/1998 11:51:14 PM Pacific Daylight Time, COMBS-D-
request@rootsweb.com writes:

<< his is the first I've heard of Barbara COMBS Magruder
having been a d/o Enoch and Barbary COMBS, Sr. Do you (or does anyone) have
a source for either Barbara's ancestry or maiden name? >>
My only reference is that Nell Magruder b.C1887 m. Julian Wilfred Coomes
c.1905 Julian was b. 15 Dec 1885 and there were apparently no children of this
marriage. Ref: Kentucky Death Index 1911-1968 Vol 039, Cert 19477, DeathVol 67


Date: Sat, 16 May 1998 01:00:57 -0500 (CDT)
From: "Michael R. Wilson" x-x-x-x-x-xmwilson@toto.net"><mwilson@toto.net>
To: COMBS-L@rootsweb.com
Message-Id: <199805160600.BAA23492@toto.net>
Subject: [COMBS-L] Susan N. COMBS of Buchanan County, MO
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Who is Susan N. COMBS of Buchanan County, Missouri? I will begin with the
obituary printed in the Saint Joseph Gazette.

Saint Joseph Gazette - DIED

COMBS - At her residence on fifth street at A.M. yesterday, Mrs. Susan N.
Combs, aged 75 years. The funeral service will be held at the First
Presbyterian Church, at 1 P.M., today, by Rev. R. S. Campbell, friends and
acquaintances are invited to attend without further notice. (St Joseph
Gazette, 12 APR 1876, page 1, Vol. 8, #241).

The first Saint Joseph City Directory that has Mrs. S.N. COMBS living in
Saint Joseph, Missouri is the 1859-1860 Directory, at the corner of 5th and
Jule Streets (1859-1860 St. Joseph City Directory, page 16).

Susan N. COMBS probate file is located at the Northwest Missouri
Genealogical Society, 412 Felix, Saint Joseph, Missouri; probate file #582.
Administrator of the estate is Miss Ann L. CATLETT. The only property
listed in the probate was the NE 1/4 of sectionn 13, township 56, range 29,
located in Caldwell County, Missouri. The remaining assests of the estate
went to Ann L. CATLETT. From a review of the documents in the probate file,
Susan N. COMBS did not have much of an estate. However this does not match
the land records in Buchanan County, Missouri.

The following are land transactions of Susan N. COMBS:

Combs, Susan N. James O'Donoghue Deed H 245 1851
Combs, Susan N. Geo. Brubaker & wife Deed J
424 1853
Combs, Susan N. B.O. Driscoll & wife Deed
N 17 1857
Combs, Susan N. Volney H. Blivens & wf Deed
R 429 1858
William J. Taylor Susan N. Combs & et al Deed
J 569 1853
Preston T. Moss S. Neville Combs & et al Deed O 249 1857
Mason F. Moss S. Neville Combs & et al Deed
O 249 1859
Ann L. Catlett Susan N. Combs Deed
V 116 1859
Jacob Sprinkle Susan N. Combs Deed 35
105 1864
Thomas E. Tootle Susan N. Combs & et al Deed
46 446 1867
Wm Fairleigh & et al Susan N. Combs & et al Deed
46 445 1867
F. J. Spickard Susan N. Combs Deed
58 79 1870

Not one of these transactions are associated with any COMBS or associated
COMBS lineages known to exist in the Northwest Missouri area and counties.
Land transactions appear to purchase property in the beginning, but then
began selling property. The other people associated with Susan N. COMBS
land transactions was Ann L. CATLETT. It appears that Susan N. COMBS had
enough money around 1851 to purchase large tracts of land in Buchanan
County, Missouri. It also appears that her full name is Susan Neville
COMBS. On the 21 January 1854 land transaction with Ann L. CATLETT as her
partner, and William P. Taylor as the grantee, Susan N. COMBS name is
recorded as Susan Neville COMBS (Buchanan County, Missouri Deed Book J, page

Susan Neville COMBS was buried in Andrew County. Missouri in the TODD
Cemetery, which is also known as the CATLETT Farm (section 21 in Jefferson
Township, Andrew County, Missouri). Her grave marker has the following
inscription on it:
BORN 16 APRIL 1800
DIED 11 APRIL 1876
(Andrew County Cemetery Inscriptions, VI, page 57, copy right 1985;
publication located in the Savannah Public Library, Savannah, Andrew County,

The evidence now suggests that we have Susan Neville (CATLETT) COMBS. The
association with Ann L. CATLETT and Susan N. COMBS but a logical assumption
is that she is her sister, but there is no proof of this assumption.

Listed in the COMBS &c. Families of Lafayette County, Missouri, Barbara
Stacy MATHEWS transcribed an entry as follows:
...(Will of) Ennis COMBS. Will dated 25 July 1848 - prob. 10 July 1849.
Heirs: wife Susan N. COMBS...(COMBS & Families of Lafayette County,
Missouri; http://www.dragonfire.net/-combs/records/mo-laf.htm, page 1 of 3).

Also listed is the following:
...1850 US Census, Lafayette Co. MO
page 13
House #188
WILSON, John 61 VA...
COMBS, Sarah 45 VA
CATLETT(,) Henry 14 KY...(COMBS & Families of Lafayette County, Missouri;
http://www.dragonfire.net/-combs/records/mo-laf.htm, page 2 of 3).

Based on the information that has been compiled, I would suggest that Susan
Neville (CATLETT) COMBS is the second wife of Dr. Ennis COMBS of Montgomery
County, Kentucky. Susan N. COMBS does not appear to have had any children
with Ennis COMBS which would account for the lack of children in her probate
estate. Susan N. COMBS had to have had enough money to purchase property in
Buchanan County, Missouri in 1851, which she would have received in the
Ennis COMBS estate as established in his will, which was probated 10 JUL
1849. This also accounts for the lack of information in the obituary about
family members, since Ennis COMBS was died and the children were her
step-children. It also gives some insight into why Ennis COMBS Jr. was
living with his Uncle Silas and Aunt Sally (COMBS) EVANS....
House #1425
EVANS, Silas 62 KY
Sally 64 VA
COMBS, Ennis 12 KY...(COMBS & Families of Lafayette County, Missouri;
http://www.dragonfire.net/-combs/records/mo-laf.htm, page 2 of 3).
Apparently the family had not completely adjusted to the second marriage of
Ennis COMBS and Susan N. CATLETT.

Michael R. WilSon
1109 NE 97th Place
Kansas City, Missouri 64155


Date: Sat, 16 May 1998 04:31:10 EDT
From: Kathy918 x-x-x-x-x-xKathy918@aol.com"><Kathy918@aol.com>
To: COMBS-L@rootsweb.com
Message-ID: <1e831d45.355d4ed0@aol.com>
Subject: Re: [COMBS-L] Jane Brown/John Combs,Jr
Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
Content-transfer-encoding: 7bit

William, I would be very interested in any info you have on the family
(parents, siblings, uncles, cousins) of your John Combs from NJ. Also do you
have the name of the area in NJ he was born? I am trying to trace the family
of Harrison Coombs born in 1816 in NJ, his children were John Wesley, George
Harrison, Charles Ellis, William Wasey, Mary Elizabeth, Issac Gillam, James
Harrison, and Emma Matilda.
I am also working on another Coombs family trying to prove/disprove their
connection to Harrison. Abner Combs born 1780 NJ father listed as James
Combs. His children I have proven(there are at least 2 more) are James,
Ezekiel, Lydia, and Sarah Ann. James' children were Abner and Nathan. The
Abner born in 1780 was listed as being born in Monmouth Co but I have also
found him in Middlesex, Mercer and Burlington Counties.
Any connections, William? Thank you. Kathy


Date: Sat, 16 May 1998 07:06:44 -0700
From: Birdie L McNutt x-x-x-x-x-xbirdiemc@juno.com "><birdiemc@juno.com >
To: COMBS-L@rootsweb.com
Message-ID: <19980516.070646.3590.0.birdiemc@juno.com>
Subject: [COMBS-L] Re: Notes Magruder - Coombs

Oooops, that should be Dec 97 when Magruder family was posted.

On Fri, 15 May 1998 22:05:44 -0700 birdiemc@juno.com (Birdie L McNutt)
>Hi Carole,
>I believe I posted the Magruder family information back in Dec 98 from
>Colonial Families of the United States of America. Vol. I and Vol II.
>I have in my personal library the complete set of these books. If you
>need a look up. or
>If anyone wants to check out this set of books it is available at:
>Ancestry Daily News
>"A Daily Dose of Genealogy"
>May 15, 1998
>In this issue:
>- Database of the Day: Colonial Families of the United States of
>America, Vol. 1
>Birdie (Totty) McNutt ( ( : )

You don't need to buy Internet access to use free Internet e-mail.
Get completely free e-mail from Juno at http://www.juno.com
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©1998-9, Copyright Combs &c. Research Group
See List Archive Copyright Restrictions (http://www.combs-families.org/~archives/index.htm).
End of COMBS-D Digest V98 Issue #523